List of dream-related publications and/or web sites where
my work is featured.
Ever since dawn of man on earth, he has been sleeping and dreaming, yet the precise mechanism by which the sleep, REM and dream occur is elusive. Abundant literature is available on the interpretation of dreams, but induction of dreams and the precise mechanism of their occurrence are not understood fully. So, an attempt has been made to induce conventional dream and explain the possible mechanism involved in the occurrence of REM and dream. Dreams can occur in the following ways:
(A) Physiological: (i) During voiding of urinary bladder by young children in their sleep; (ii) during advanced stages of pregnancy; (iii) during lactation, soon after the delivery of a child and a few weeks after; (iv) partial or complete occlusion of peripheral blood vessels during sleep.
(B) Traumatic: During a deep cut or injury, high temperature, deep burns and a few other such traumatic conditions.
(C) Chemical: (i) Under the influence of alcohol, psychotomimetics (hallucinogens) and a few drugs which are of therapeutic importance like general anesthetics agents produce dream-like state.
(D) Spiritual: (i) During deep meditation, in a state of Samadhi (stillness). What is common in all above conditions is that there is transmission of afferent impulses from different sites conveyed through the spinal chord, medulla oblongata, pons, mid brain, optic tract, thalamus, optic radiations and visual area in the ascending order of stimulation. Impulses are also conveyed through the mammary glands and urinary bladder and there is involvement of autonomic nerves. Occurrence of a dream is dependent on the posture in which an individual sleeps in which the blood flow is compromised, distention of some organs and trauma, induce dreams. Dreams can occur only by the external stimulus, except during pregnancy and lactation where distension of organs is responsible for inducing dream. REM and dreams are not to be considered as same. REM and dreams occur at different planes; the REM occurring at lower plane and dreams occurring at higher plane. In addition to the spinal nerves, a few cranial nerves mediate REM and dream. The site at which dreams occur could be the same site at which sychotomimetics act and there could be mediation of 5HT2A receptors. Finally occurrence of a dream is a physiological reflex and role of psychology in occurrence of dream could be minimal. It is the pain which induces dreams. If pain were not there, we would not have had the dream, and if we had no dream, we would never have got up from our sleep.